Endocrine Surgery – All you need to know about

Endocrine disorders refer to those diseases which are related to the endocrine organs of the body. These chemical signals are secreted through the bloodstream and assist the body to regulate various processes such as breathing, appetite, growth, weight control, fluid balance, and so on. 

Also, these hormones influence the way how your heart works, how your bones and tissues grow, and even your ability to conceive a baby. 

Common endocrine disorders are Acromegaly Addison’s Disease, Cushing’s Syndrome, Diabetes Mellitus, Graves’ Disease, and so on. 

Modern treatments (which includes mostly Endocrine surgery) are effective for various endocrine dysfunctions. Untreated endocrine diseases can result in widespread complications in the body. 

In this blog, we shall discuss endocrine surgery and its related aspects. But before that, let’s have a look at the causes and symptoms of the endocrine system.


Endocrine disorder symptoms range from mild to serious and can impact your feeling of overall well-being. Symptoms are specifically related to the particular part of the endocrine system affected.


I. Symptoms of Diabetes: 

1. Fatigue
2.Regular urination
3.Vision changes
4.Nausea or vomiting
5.Extreme thirst or hunger


II. Symptoms of Addison’s disease

1. Diarrhoea
2. Depression
3. Headache
4. Weakness
5. Salt cravings
6. Unexplained weight loss
7. Missed menstrual loss
8. Hyperpigmentation of the skin
9. Low blood pressure


III. Symptoms of acromegaly

1. Deep voice
2. Headaches
3. Unusual large or swollen hands or feet
4. Weakness
5. Body and joint aches
6. Sleep apnea
7.Vision impairment
8. Altered facial bone structure


IV. Symptoms of Cushing’s syndrome

1.Fat between the shoulder blades
2. Feeling very thirsty
3. Regular urination
4. Obesity in the upper body
5. Weakening of the bones
6. Bruising


V. Symptoms of Graves’ disease

1. Difficulty in sleeping
2. Heat intolerance
3. Irregular heart rate
4. Tremors
5. Bulging eyes
6. Red or thick skin on the shins
7. Unexplained weight loss


VI. Symptoms of Hashimoto’s thyroiditis

1. Cold intolerance
2. Constipation
3. Fatigue
4. Weight gain
5. Slow heart rate
6. Missed menstrual periods
7. Joint and muscle pain
8. Goitre


VII. Symptoms of Hypothyroidism

1. Difficult in sleeping
2. Tremors
3. Unexplained weight loss
4. Loss of strength
5. Heat intolerance
6. Diarrhoea
7. Goitre
8. Mood changes
9. Rapid heart rate



Endocrine dysfunctions are typically categorized into two types.

1. The endocrine disorder that occurs due to the development of lesions in the endocrine system, which may affect the levels of hormones. 

2. The endocrine disease that results when a gland produces either too much or too little of an endocrine hormone. This condition is known as hormonal imbalance.


Decreased or increased hormone levels are mostly caused by: 

1. Disease
2. Endocrine feedback system problem
3. Infection
4. Endocrine gland injury
5. Endocrine gland tumour
6. A genetic disease like Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia (MEN) or congenital hypothyroidism.


Most endocrine tumours and nodules (lumps) are noncancerous. They mostly do not spread to other parts of the body. Although, a tumour on the gland may affect the gland’s hormone production.


Risk factors

Several factors augment the risk of developing the endocrine disorder. These include: 

1. Inactivity
2. Bad diet
3. Any recent surgery, injury, trauma, infection, etc.
4. Family history of endocrine disease
5. High cholesterol levels


Endocrine surgery

Surgeons and Endocrinologists work together closely to offer the best care to patients afflicted with endocrine disorders. 

Various endocrine surgery types are as follows: 


1. Adrenalectomy: Removal of the entire adrenal gland

2. Parathyroidectomy: Removal of the entire parathyroid gland

3. Thyroid lobectomy: Removal of one lobe of the thyroid gland

4. Total pancreatectomy: This surgery removes the entire pancreas, gallbladder, part of the stomach and small intestine, and the spleen.

5. Thyroidectomy: Removal of the entire thyroid gland


Risks associated with Endocrine surgery

As with any other surgical procedure, there are possible dangers related to endocrine surgeries. Some risks associated are:


1. Infection
2. Bleeding
3. Nerve injury
4. Breathing difficulty
5. Heart/lung issues related to anaesthesia
6. Voice change
7. Blood pressure changes


Key treatments 

1. Obesity
2. Diabetes
3. Thyroid
4. Men – infertility & testosterone problems
5. Problems with puberty
6. Osteoporosis
7. Adrenal Disorder
8. Pituitary Disorder
9. Growth problems in children
10. Women – hormonal problems, menstrual problems, infertility & menopause


Surgery is usually well developed. It has developed as a sub-speciality surgical category due to the technical nature of these operations and the related risks of operating in the neck.

Endocrine surgeons at Neotia Getwel has experience in clinically specialised aspects of Endocrine surgical care for the people they treat. To book your appointment, click here.