Common types of Neurological Disorders

Our nervous system is a highly specialized network that helps us memorize, talk, understand, perceive, move and many other functions. Comprising the brain, spinal cord and nerves as essential parts of nervous system, it is considered as one of the most important parts of our body. Any disorder in the part of nervous system is referred to as neurological disorder. Today, millions of people across the globe are getting affected because of neurological disorder.

Though the causes of neurological disorders may vary, it may include several factors like congenital abnormalities, genetic disorders, lifestyle or environmental health problems that includes brain injury, spinal cord injury or nerve injury and malnutrition. Alzheimer’s disease, Epilepsy, Cerebral palsy, Brain tumours, Autism, Stroke, Learning disabilities are some of the common Neurological disabilities that are faced by most people.

Here, let us discuss some of the most common neurological disorders in details that would help you understand some of the neurological disorders.

1. Alzheimer’s disease – occurs when the nerve cells in the brain die. A progressive, neurodegenerative disease, it causes symptoms like impaired memory, behavioural change, confusion with restlessness, difficulty in following instructions, speech difficulty, difficulty in communication etc. Memory loss is common among older people. Though, a certain degree of memory loss is a normal situation as one ages but serious memory loss needs to be treated.

Though the exact cause is yet to be known, age, health & lifestyle, family history can trigger Alzheimer’s disease. Physical and social activity along with proper nutrition, health maintenance, and proper medication and treatment can manage the disease.


2. Epilepsy – Another common neurological disorder that involves abnormal activity in the brain making recurrent seizures. When the normal connection between nerve cells gets interrupted due to some reasons or the other it may cause seizure. Symptoms may vary and include brain concussion, high fever, fluctuation of blood sugar level etc. This results in one or two seizures; however, when a person experiences more than two seizures, he/she is considered to have epilepsy.

If by any means experience seizure, do consult a doctor. Medication and proper treatment like epilepsy surgery can control epilepsy.


3. Stroke – A fatal and emergency situation where blood flow to the brain suddenly gets stopped leading to stroke or brain attack. The brain needs constant supply of oxygen to function properly. Now, if due to a clot or blockage in an artery, the blood supply stops, a fatal situation arises whereby brain cells begin to die and brain function stops. As a result, performing regular works which are under the control of the brain gets affected and you cannot perform these works. The warning signs of stroke are difficulty in balancing, arm weakness, speech difficulty, changes in eyesight, face weakness, etc. A stroke may happen any time; as such time is very precious. If one gets attacked by stroke, immediately he/she should be taken to the doctor for treatment.


4. Parkinson’s disease – A progressive nervous system disorder, Parkinson’s disease affects body-coordination and triggers with age. Many aged people get affected with this disease. Some cases are hereditary, but most cases arise spontaneously. Dying of brain cells (called substantia nigra) give rise to this disease. Signs of Parkinson’s disease worsen over time. There is change in walking posture, facial expressions, behavioural problems etc. The disease strips away motor abilities, which results in people with slow, awkward and imbalance while walking, tremor, rigidity in limbs. However, recent advances in medical science have led to the new discovery of therapies in treating this disease.


5. Headaches – One of the most common neurological disorders that may affect anyone at any age. Though, headache is not considered as a serious disease if it comes suddenly and goes off suddenly; but if it persists you should visit a doctor and get it examined. There could be sudden onset of severe headache along with fever, stiff neck and shoulder region, intracranial bleeding or meningitis.

Headaches can generally be of two types:

(a) Tension headache is caused by stress and muscle tension and doesn’t cause nausea, vomiting or sensitivity to light and is usually a steady ache in the head, and not a severe one. It affects both sides of the head and can be chronic. Common symptoms include hurting of head on both sides, pain is involved in the back part of the head or neck, pain is generally mild and not severe.

(b) Migraine, on the other hand is a recurring headache and is moderate to severe in intensity, along with a pounding feeling. Normally is one-sided, but may occur anywhere on the head, neck, face or all over. Nausea along with sensitivity to light, noise are common symptoms and may worsen day by day. Both migraines and normal headaches are not life threatening, but may be chronic. Repetitive headaches can be a serious concern and if it occurs consulting a doctor is highly recommended.

Today, with advancement of medical sciences, several treatment options are available to treat neurological disorders. However, you must see a doctor and get proper treatment and medication related to neurological disabilities to get back to proper life.



Though all attempts are made to provide correct information on the subject, inadvertent & typographical errors arising out of manual intervention cannot be ruled out. It is requested to bring any such discrepancies to the notice of the blogger for correction.