Cardiology: All you Need to Know

The word Cardiology is taken from the Greek word “cardia” (known as the heart) and “logy” (study of). Cardiology refers to a branch of medicine that involves the study and treatment of the heart and its related body parts.

This may vary from congenital defects to acquired heart diseases like coronary heart failure and artery ailment.

Specialists who study cardiology are known as cardiologists. These experts see the medical supervision of different heart disorders.

A cardiologist is meant to perform several tests and procedures such as angioplasty, heart catheterizations or placing a pacemaker.

In this blog, we shall explore various cardiology aspects in detail. We will understand cardiac surgery as well.

So, let’s dive in.


Tests involved in Cardiology

A cardiologist is meant to analyse a patient’s medical history and perform a physical examination.

He/she may check the person’s heart, lungs, blood pressure, weight, etc. and perform some tests.

An interventional cardiologist might carry out procedures like stenting, angioplasties, heart defect corrections, valvuloplasties and congenital and coronary thrombectomies.

Some of the tests that may be carried out are mentioned below:


1. Echocardiogram: This offers an ultrasound picture that displays the structure of the heart chambers and neighbouring areas. This can tell how well the heart is performing.


2. Ambulatory ECG: This test records heart rhythms while the person is performing exercise or their normal activities.


3. Nuclear cardiology: Nuclear imaging techniques utilize radioactive materials to study cardiovascular ailments in a non-intrusive manner.


4. Cardiac catheterization: A small tube near or in the heart gathers data and can help relieve a blockage.


5. Electrocardiogram (ECG or EKG): This is performed to record the electrical activity of the heart.


When do you visit a Cardiologist?

If a person develops symptoms of heart ailments, you may need to seek the advice of a cardiologist.

Signs that indicate the possibility of a heart disorder are:

1. Chest pains

2. Irregular changes in heart rate

3. High blood pressure

4. Shortness of breath

5. Faintness/Light headedness


A cardiologist can conduct some tests for an abnormal heart rhythm or heart murmur.

They usually treat patients who have suffered from a heart attack, heart failure, or other heart disorders.


Cardiac Electrophysiology

It is a subspecialty of cardiology. The specialist checks the performance of electric currents inside the heart muscle tissue, how the current spreads and the meaning behind the current patterns.

An EPS (Electrophysiology study) of the heart can:

1.  Show the cause behind symptoms

2. Help decide the best treatment for patients with abnormal heart rhythm (also known as arrhythmia)

3. Help decide how likely a patient is to experience an accelerated heart beat or tachycardia

4. Help determine whether a patient requires a pacemaker

A cardiac electrophysiologist can offer treatment for abnormal rhythms such as pacemakers, cardiac ablation or implantable cardioverter defibrillators.


Cardiac Surgery

Cardiac surgery, also known as cardiovascular surgery, describes any surgical procedure that includes the heart, or the blood vessels.

These techniques are normal with patients who suffer from heart disorders, stroke or blood clots — as well as those who are at odds for developing these problems.


Approaches to Perform Cardiac Surgery

The method used by a surgeon to perform cardiac surgery depends on your heart problem, general health and other factors.

Approaches to cardiac surgery are as follows:

1. Open-heart surgery: Also, known as traditional heart surgery, this involves cutting the chest open to reach the heart. As it is difficult to operate on a beating heart, medicines are used to stop the heart.

A heart-lung bypass machine continues to pump oxygen-rich blood through the body during the surgery.


2. Off-pump heart surgery: This is an open-heart surgery performed on a beating heart. The surgeon holds the heart steady with a device. Surgeons may use off-pump heart surgery to carry out coronary artery bypass grafts (CABG), but only in certain cases.


3. Minimally invasive heart surgery: It involves using small cuts between the ribs. The cuts may be as small as 2 to 3 inches. The surgeon inserts tools into the chest through the cuts. This type may or may not use a heart-lung bypass machine.


4. Robotic-assisted surgery: This is a type of minimally invasive surgery. Here, the surgeon uses a computer to control tools on the arms of a robot. This enables the surgeon to be precise while performing complex operations.


Recovery time

Recovery time is based on the type of surgery you have, the overall health before surgery, and whether you have experienced any problems. For instance, complete recovery from a traditional coronary artery bypass may need six to 12 weeks or more.

For most types, you will probably spend a day or more in the hospital’s intensive care unit. After that, you will be shifted to another room of the hospital for several days until you go home.

Individuals who have undertaken heart surgery can immensely benefit from an inclusive and organized rehabilitation program that includes exercise, dealing with stress, anxiety, and reducing other risk factors.



People are mostly referred to a cardiologist by their health provider when they experience any relevant symptoms. But they may wish to choose their own professional.

Cardiovascular surgeons at Neotia are part of a multidisciplinary team reputed for its expert care tailored to the patients.


Our team approach promises quick test results, coordinated and scheduled appointments, and multiple experts’ discussions before deciding the best treatment for your heart ailment. Book your appointment here.



Though all attempts are made to provide correct information on the subject, inadvertent & typographical errors arising out of manual intervention cannot be ruled out.

It is requested to bring any such discrepancies to the notice of the blogger for correction.